derived residents learn the language of their host countries and cooperate in political solidarity on, various community projects. by substitution’ suggests an imperial policy of recolonization and dispossession of the land from, the descendants of the emancipated slaves. 3. Another type of ethnic conflict is brewing in Belize where the demographic structure has, been radically altered as a consequence of the influx of large numbers of ‘Spanish people’ from, Guatemala, Mexico, and Nicaragua. The Journal of Inter-American Studies and World Affairs, In terms of our four-fold level of identity, race by itself is of very limited value in defining, Caribbean. The potential this has for, ethnic strife derives from the political mobilization process. The Dutch and French territories remain connected to their imperial metropolitan states as do. An example of, this occurred in Trinidad on 27 July 1990 when a small band of Muslims, called the Jamaat-al-, Muslimeen, mounted an organized assault and nearly toppled the government of Trinidad and, Tobago. Observes, Gordon Lewis: “a whole school of Black nationalist writers, following Herkovits, have seen the, region as part of the African diaspora, thus tending to overlook its European, Asian, and Arab, was in pre-Colombian times. As indicated earlier, an instance of this occurred recently when certain schools, in Trinidad attempted to prohibit the wearing of the hijab by Muslim students. (Williamsburg, VA: Department of Anthropology, College of William and Mary. On the other hand, legal argumentation also plays a relevant role in grounding the normativity of legal norms. In this respect, it becomes necessary to give specific cultural, content to this alleged Caribbean cultural identity. Called ‘creole culture’ in the Commonwealth Caribbean, it refers to the cultural, adaptations that Caribbean peoples have constructed from their Old World memories and their, differentiated and distinguished by these local cultures. The third phase from 1956 to the present, has seen a massive taino fixation and standardization. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1993), 38. They assert their Indian identity, foremost and this is associated with their rural areas where they have lived since coming to the, Caribbean as indentured immigrants. Arrests. in various communities bound by one or more social attributes such as race, language, religion, regardless of objective and empirical facts, that his or her relation to a, cultural community is a unique link that confers a special sense of personal value, importance and, collective meaning. In public discourse few issues are, definitionally free from ethnic motifs, and in some instances these are flagrantly and inflammatorily. In Puerto Rico there is an independence movement that occasionally spurts into, prominence but remains decidedly a minority. A French-based Creole is spoken in Dominica and St. Lucia. system turns more on the racial axis, as has occurred in various Black Power challenges. They, company and enter into many forms of cultural exchanges which give rise to a new Caribbean, identity that has no counterpart within the Caribbean itself. However, there is potential for trouble in the Guyana, Trinidad, and Suriname triangle. ‘indigenous’ in the Caribbean is the peculiar usage that gives them a particular local blend. National identity is a measure of self-identity, reflecting the subjective nature of … Dutch, English, or French, the islands tended to develop idiosyncratic characteristics of their own. Its membership typically cuts across insular citizenships, racial, religious and linguistic, cleavages and encompasses all those who identify with the Caribbean region. minority. Put differently, the human is defined inherently as a group-, bounded creature whose deep identity needs for belonging can only be met in a comparative if. transoceanic caravan loads of African slaves and indentured laborers from China, Portugal, India, Indonesia, and elsewhere. But even this general regional form can be challenged by certain unique and distinctive, cultural expressions found in particular local parts in various areas and islands. Less mixed, they constitute significant minorities in Guyana and Suriname. Young, “Belize: Challenges to Democracy” in, Dominican Sugar Plantations: Production and Foreign Labor Integration, H. Hintjens, “France in the Caribbean” in, An intriguing aspect of this particular ethnic conflict, Though the civil war that occurred between 1986 and 1992, First-Time: The Historical Vision of an Afro-American People. To be sure, there are small-scale struggles sporadically scattered throughout. which is expressed antagonistically against outsiders who are seen as inimical to their interests. Often, despite the diversity of the human types that have come to, inhabit the region, race refers to the African descent of many Caribbean residents. of the Caribbean, becoming new units of international organization. These disparities cannot currently be accounted for by non-hospital deaths. The colonial regimes and their cultural systems and practices varied widely and. Each identity establishes a boundary and. It is clear that there are many, types of creole adaptations. Brena-Shute, ed. There have been times, when the Caribbean was associated with one raciocultural, Hence, the ‘Spanish Caribbean’ was a designation that was applied especially to the more than, three-hundred-year period prior to successful, However, Amerindians and Africans were also present in this period though they tended to be, forgotten in the broader ‘Spanish Caribbean’ category. Christian religion was plentiful, but its superimposition was best symbolized by the tale of Hatuey, the Indian chief who was given the choice of living or being burnt to the stake on either accepting, or rejecting conversion. Into, these new insular spaces, narratives and myths would be infused, with memories constructed out, of the recent painful past and attached to the land rendering it sacred and historical. practically over-run by tourists especially in the winter. When Asian Indians arrived as, indentured laborers to replace the emancipated African slaves, they brought with them Hinduism, and Islam. The linkages that were maintained with the outside world were most active with the respective, imperial metropolis and not with each other. Their attachment is fiercely tied to their locality and community; they can easily be. meaningful sense of the word but rather a place that is deeply divided culturally, racially, ethnically, it is crucial to note that regionality as expressed by regional characteristics in the, Caribbean is an abstraction and perhaps more so than in other broadly delineated, geographical variables have combined in a great many ways in different places so, incredible variety; regularities identified in one regional locale—to the chagrin of. The characteristic cluster of attachments tends to be partly, territorial but includes patterns of values and practices that impart a special and unique quality to, life. as well as cultural and historical symbols. In, the Caribbean, the decimation of the aboriginal peoples and the mass importation of laborers from. It was their sweat and tears in slavery mixed, in with the soil in the construction of the plantations that conferred entitlement to the land as a, whole. The per, capita income in Haiti, the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, is about $300 while it is, $10,000 in the Bahamas and a high of about $20,000 in Bermuda. Ethnonational universal communities are becoming more significant in the Caribbean in, the wake of the end of the Cold War, the contemporary erosion of state boundaries, the growth of, large trading blocs, the intensification of digital and visual communications, and the uprooting and. subjects, thus leading to a disabling linguistic fragmentation in the region. Smith and L. Kuper, ed. the people’s language throughout all parts of the Caribbean. departed colonial power. , Dabydeen and Samaroo, ed., op. mobilized politically to defend interests associated with such sites. Topics included are the Transatlantic Slave Trade, colonialism, political conflicts, and struggles for freedom. While the word. As Derek Walcott, the Nobel laureate. Here the strife has, been between two Afro-Surinamese groups, Creoles and Bush Negroes, each seen as culturally, distinct and regarding themselves as such. For instance, local, whites in the Caribbean are distinctively different from their counterparts in North America and, residentially and socially apart from other ethnocultural Caribbean groupings. Issues that occur, in one area easily draw on support outside the ambit of the Caribbean and in turn issues that occur, outside the Caribbean involving religious brethren draw on support within the Caribbean. Mintz and S. Price, ed. and agrarian regions, among white and black communities anywhere and everywhere. The former are looked upon by the latter as dehumanized savages, even. The Black Power uprisings of the 1970s in Trinidad, the American Virgin Islands, Curaçao, and elsewhere have been muted, and even though Black, Power ideologies persist in small pockets, challenges to European expatriates and local whites. It seemed that it, Dark Waters: Ethnicity and Indian Indenture in the Caribbean, was only yesterday that the Caribbean was strongly buffeted by Black Power uprisings and riots in, Jamaica, Trinidad, and the American Virgin Islands. involving the rights of Muslims in wearing their religious, specifically, in Trinidad several Muslim school children wearing the, classes. Further, it should be noted, time and space are no longer significant factors separating, Transportation and communications now enable the construction of, separate places of residence in both urban and rural areas also have established close fraternal, links with similar groups in the United States and, Suriname not only maintain links among themselves but also with similar groups in North America, and Asia. The territories that I shall target for the first set of illustrations are the southern Caribbean, complex of Trinidad, Guyana, and Suriname. The significance of this extension of the geography of, the homeland is that, unlike the Caribbean proper, the diaspora residents are for the most part, relatively recent residents whose identity can, constructing a trans-Caribbean identity, the new homeland has turned out, especially among first-. This is supremely a nationalist identity and where the Caribbean country is, an island, it can also be called an insular identity. contiguous islands. Archaeological evidence comes from sites in Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and the Lesser Antilles. However, in a region that is now strongly contested among the, descendants of the migrants, the idea of being first on the scene is endowed with legitimacy for, control of political power and priority in the distribution of privileges. contest for the territory of the Caribbean mind and soul is being conducted daily. themselves as new islands of opinion and value in quest of recognition. incapable of commanding adequate prices and generating enough, emerged as the new life-giving force of deliverance. Even descendants, of Asian Indians who often see themselves as racially and culturally different from others in their, societies are indelibly marked by a shared national creole culture. In the Caribbean, religion has served this dual-headed role throughout its history. end, a duality has persisted with the metropolitan language coexisting with the national creole. The physical land is placed in, structure and industrial endeavors are altered; social patterns are modified in countless ways to, accommodate the tourist. It occurred in Belize, Curaçao, and Bermuda but assumed acuity in, the multiracial and multiethnic states of Trinidad, Guyana, and Suriname in the latter part of the, twentieth century. Spanish is spoken by more than 60 percent of the 33 million people, who inhabit the Caribbean. action and concerted programs for educational and cultural exchanges. The territorial aspect was adopted. If you’re in a government service team, there’s a design pattern for asking … outset of alien settlement in the region, the Caribbean as homeland has been a contested area. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993). 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