Musical instruments used include the gaita asturiana (Asturian bagpipe), drums and accordion. As the capital of Islamic Spain, it enjoyed enormous revenues, largely derived from agriculture, trade, and industry, all of which flourished under the Umayyad ruling dynasty. Here you will discover music that is a fusion of Spanish and Moorish cultures that resulted from an invasion of Spain in the 8th century by Muslim Moors. The Moorish legacy can still be seen in modern Spain. From then the Moors ruled Spain for 800 years allowing African royals and other leaders to influence many aspects of Spanish society. When the Arabs conquered a large part of Asia Minor, they found that the silk-making process had already been developed there on a limited scale because of previous contact with China. Traditional groups in the Alta Extremadura (Upper Extremadura) use the format of gaita (a three hole flute, not the bagpipe), tamboril (drum) and vocals. Along with reforming music Ziryab introduced a new style of eating in Western Europe, set course meal. Explaining this process, the Encyclopædia Britannica states: “The importance of Islām lay in the Arab assimilation of the scientific and technological achievements of Hellenic civilization, to which it made significant additions, and the whole became available to the West through the Moors in Spain. Al-Andalus (Arabic: الأَنْدَلُس ) was the name of the Iberian Peninsula during the Muslim rule, it is used by modern historians as an umbrella term for the former Islamic states in Iberia. They invaded the Iberian peninsula in 711, defeating the Visigoths, and established their rule for almost 800 years. After the end of Moorish Spain in 1492, this musical tradition migrated to the large cities of North Africa, such as Fez, Tlemcen, Algiers, Constantine, and Tunis. The efficient Moorish system of irrigation canals is still in use in many parts of Spain, watering orange and lemon groves first planted by Arab horticulturists. Lunch will be served in a traditional Moroccan restaurant to live Moorish music. Spanish and Moorish Fashions Paperback – July 31, 2003 by Tom Tierney (Author) 3.5 out of 5 stars 9 ratings Because of the labors of these translators, Arabic works such as Avicenna’s Canon of Medicine became standard textbooks, sometimes for centuries, in many European universities. Moorish music was later incorporated in flamenco, and Moorish craftsmanship also survived and can be readily discerned in many a souvenir that entices the modern-day tourist. It has been described as the “most beautiful Moslem temple in the world.”. Moorish Spain, if no worse than the other Muslim-controlled societies of its time, was certainly no better. Ziryab was a natural born leader and pioneer. You just … Variations include muñeira do Espantallo, muñeira ribeiriña, muñeira carballesa and muñeira redonda. From all parts of Europe and beyond they come, not only to enjoy the peninsula’s innumerable sun-drenched beaches but also to soak up Spanish culture. Musical genres include: pasacáis or pasacalles, muñeires, muliñeira or molinera, rondes, saltón, alborada, marcha, fandango, jota or xota, and habanera. One source says: “It was second in holiness only to Mecca and . Al-Andalus is the name given to the Iberian Peninsula when it was under Muslim rule. New instruments and melodies emerged in the territory, such as the guitar and flamenco. The invaders are generally called “Moors,” irrespective of their country of origin.*. Granada, the last Moorish kingdom, was conquered in 1492, and the Moors were expelled from the peninsula. The hospital of Córdoba was a renowned medical school, the first of its kind in Europe, and its surgeons enjoyed international repute. Flamenco was born in Andalusia and is also very popular in Extremadura and Murcia. The muñeira is accompanied by gaita (bagpipe), tamboril (drum) or redoblante, pandereta (tambourine), pandero (frame drum), bombo, charrasco and sometimes conchas (sea shells), which are also known as cunchas or vieiras (scallop shells). By the following century a school of translators had been established in Toledo, and gradually the vast majority of Islamic works were translated into Latin and later into other European languages. “Islām also provided a transmission belt for some of the technology of the ancient civilizations of East and South Asia, especially those of India and China.”. Granada was thus the site of Moorish Spain’s final, flamboyant cultural flowering, helped by the refugees fleeing from former Muslim strongholds. Although the Islamic conquerors usually did not propagate their religion by force, the new faith gradually won over not only the pagans but most of those claiming to be Christian in the Middle East and North Africa, as well as many in Spain. It was able to do so, without losing its spirit, going on to conquer new and greater audiences. Spain is located in southwestern Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Portugal, and Pyrenees Mountains, southwest of France. When Roman culture was dominant, it brought with it the music and ideas of Ancient Greece, whereby the reciting of epic poetry and folk music played an integral role. Under the direction of the Moors, rice, sugarcane, pomegranates, cotton, bananas, oranges, lemons, dates, and figs were cultivated. What happened to them? They have been captivated by the sights and sounds of Moorish Spain. Mikaela Rogozen-Soltar, “Al-Andalus in Andalusia: Negotiating Moorish History and Regional Identity in Southern Spain,” Anthropological Quarterly 80, no. However, as the Umayyad Caliphate expanded, the forces of the frontier regions were composed mostly of the mawalis (clients) – basically voluntarily-converted adherents of Islam from the non-Arab background, like the Persians in the Khorasan regi… Arab Andalusian (música andalusí) is the term use to define the classical Arabic music of Medieval Al-Andalus, which was the name given to Muslim-occupied Spain as well as current North African classical Arabic music. Medicine. Muñeira – Traditional Galician song and dance, also known as muiñeira. Islam arrived in that region with the arrival of the Moors during the 8 th century AD, and succeeded in conquering almost the entire peninsula in less than a decade. This vast Muslim empire, equaling its Roman counterpart in extent, was religious as well as political. It is also danced in a circle, although there are some variants in a row (for example in the islands of El Hierro and Gran Canaria) with very elegant gestures that recall the ancient Spanish court dances. IMPORTANT: To refine track results, adjust the filter and/or sort options below. These advances, together with the adoption of the triangular sail used for generations by Arab dhows, were to be important contributions to the great voyages of discovery in the 15th century. The dance has a lot in common with the mainland Spanish fandango. In Avicenna’s Canon of Medicine, a medical encyclopedia of the 11th century, we find the following sound advice: “Experience shows that nursing at the mother’s breast is an important protective factor against diseases.”. Twenty-seven free schools were provided to teach poor children, and there was a high standard of literacy among both girls and boys. They combine the influences of traditional Spanish culture with the distinct features of Islamic architecture. A notable geographical and astronomical work, written by al-Idrisi who studied in Córdoba, appeared in the 12th century. Meanwhile, many of its imposing castles still stand vigil as mute witnesses of a grandeur that is no more. After the end of Moorish Spain in 1492, this musical tradition migrated to the large cities of North Africa, such as Fez, Tlemcen, Algiers, Constantine, and Tunis. From the 8th to 15th centuries, the Moors controlled most of Spain, Sicily, Malta, and large swaths of North Africa. Sorry, there was an error loading the video. . Even the language of Spain still reflects a marked Moorish influence; scholars calculate that 8 percent of modern Spanish words are derived from Arabic. But in the year 711, Roderick, the Visigoth king of southern Spain, was defeated by advancing armies of Moors, from North Africa. If you want more information about the Moors you can read The “Moorish” Empire: A Historical Epitome (Classic Reprint) and/or The Moors: The Islamic West 7th-15th Centuries AD (Men-at-Arms). 1 (2014): 27–55. Asturias is a region in northern Spain. Spanish-Moorish Music. Early in the eleventh century, the Umayyad dynasty came to an end, and there began a series of assassinations, uprisings, and feuds. Islamic scholars literally heeded the admonition of their prophet, “Look for wisdom, albeit found in China.” Some of the new technology did indeed come from China. So it is that, wherever the tourist may wander, the sights and sounds of modern Spain may well be the echoes of this bygone civilization whose glory has passed but whose legacy to Spain and, indeed, to the world is remarkable. Men and women who participate in pilgrimages dance it in couples. When We Ruled Spain Tour Reviews Please find below feedback from the evaluation forms from delegates who attended the ‘When We Ruled Spain Tour’ in October 2011. Folia – Dance and rhythm from the Canary Islands. No other European country boasts such a unique melting pot of musical elements, each plucked from the various cultures of Spain's past. More a homage to Moorish architecture than a Moorish site itself, the Royal … In Cuba, Spanish influences mixed with African elements gave birth to the Cuban bolero, a very slow 4/4 rhythm, accompanied by maracas and bongos. Other Spanish musical genres: chotis (Madrid), ensalada, fandango, farruca, sardana, sevillanas (Seville), verdiales (Malaga). However, the golden age of Córdoba was to be short-lived. The first point to grasp is that the Muslim invasion of AD 711 did not encounter a backward cultural wasteland on the Iberian Peninsula. The name parado (stopped) comes from the abrupt end of the dance. With the possible exception of Constantinople, tenth-century Córdoba, with some 500,000 inhabitants, was the most populous city of Europe. The considerable impact of Moorish culture on Western Europe can readily be seen by the many words from diverse fields in English (and other European languages) that are derived from Arabic: algebra, zero, alcohol, alkali, lemon, orange, sugar, adobe, alcove, tariff, magazine, jar, mattress, sofa. Bolero Viejo (old bolero) is a type of bolero from Spain. Bolero – The bolero is a traditional Spanish musical air and dance at 3/4. Spain has a rich history and varied folk music traditions. . Also during the tenth century, the Great Mosque of Córdoba was finally completed. Celtic music is primarily found in northwestern Spain, in Galicia and Asturias, although Celtic music acts can be found throughout the rest of the country. 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